In linguistic typology, the subject-verb object (SVO) is a sentence structure in which the subject comes first, the second verb and the third object. Languages can be categorized according to the predominant order of these elements in unmarked sentences (i.e. phrases in which an unusual word order is not used for the accent). The term is often used for energy languages that do not have subjects, but have a word agent object order (AVO). English is included in this group. One example is “Sam ae Oranges.” In Turkish, it is normal to use SOV, but SVO can sometimes be used to highlight the verb. For example, “John terketti Mary`yi” (Lit. John/Left/Maria: John left Mary) is the answer to the question “What did John do to Mary?” instead of the regular phrase “John Mary`yi terketti” (Lit. John/Mary/links). Although some subject-verb-object languages in West Africa, the best known is Ewe, postures in nomadic phrases, the vast majority of them, like English, have prepositions.
Most subject-verb-object languages place genitives by name, but a significant minority, including post-positional SVO languages from West Africa, Hmong-Mien languages, some Sino-Tibetan and European languages such as Swedish, Danish, Lithuanian and Latvian have first-name genes (as might be expected in SOV). In an analytical language such as English, the subject-verb-object order is relatively inflexible because it identifies which part of the sentence is the subject and which part of the object. (“The Andy bit dog” and “Andy bit the dog” mean two completely different things, whereas in the case of “Bit Andy the dog,” it can be difficult to determine whether it is a complete sentence or a fragment, with “Andy the dog” the object and an exuberant/implicit subject.) The situation is more complex in languages that have not imposed a string of words by their grammar; Russian, Finnish, Ukrainian and Hungarian have both VO and OV constructions in their common words. In some languages, some word sequences are considered “more natural” than others. In some cases, the order is the issue of emphasis. For example, Russian allows the use of the subject-verb object in any order and “mixing” parts to create a slightly different contextual meaning each time.