In the case of an investment contract, the individual must not be a new shareholder, but may be a shareholder or an external investor. All existing shareholders (and in particular the founders) and the company should be parties to the agreement, although it may be impossible for all minority shareholders to be non-partisan if there are many. Among the most common rights granted to investors by a company through an investor rights agreement is that after an investment tranche, the company can provide an investment guarantee as an explicit guarantee that the returns of the option giver on the completion date are true and accurate. Representations and guarantees generally refer to the company`s terms and conditions, which are reviewed as part of due diligence. These may relate to the financial situation (accounting and tax representations), the company`s assets (ownership and valuation), the ownership structure, the operational characteristics and the legal situation of the company. As a general rule, investors will have a minority stake, i.e. together they will hold less than 50% of the company`s shares after the completion of an initial investment. Historically, however, it is not uncommon for investors to quickly hold a majority stake in life sciences companies, especially when the company needs more than one round of investment because of the size of each investment and the amount of money often required to develop a life sciences company`s products. Under English corporate law, many shareholders` business can be decided either by the majority of shareholders or by at least 75% of the shareholders. STOP PRESS: The Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 contains provisions that temporarily (until December 31, 2020) severely limit a creditor`s ability to request a liquidation order. For more information, please see Practice: Corporate These are the steps to take after closing the first tranche of investment: There is often discretion for the board of directors to waive this requirement and an exclusion for those exercising options. By signing proof of commitment, the new shareholder is subject to the same rules as the existing rules. It also ensures that the new shareholder obtains the rights granted to other shareholders under the shareholders` pact.

This necessary provision is binding only on signatories, unlike the company`s bylaws, which apply to all shareholders under the 2006 Companies Act. If the investment in a life sciences company is realized, with the exception of IP guarantees, the remaining guarantees in their application will be quite limited due to the company`s limited business history. IP guarantees in life sciences investments, regardless of the phase of the business, are, in most cases, more detailed and important than others, because of the value, breadth and complexity of the IP they own or the products they want to create and/or develop.