Policies in this category include expenditures (or revenue losses) related to programs providing services or benefits to agriculture or the rural community. They must not include direct payments to producers or processors. These programmes, which include in particular the following list, must meet the general criteria set out in paragraph 1 and the following specific conditions: the CAP is also concerned by agricultural concessions granted to a large number of countries under several multilateral and bilateral agreements, as well as by unilateral derogations granted under the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP). These preferential agreements explain the high level of EU agricultural imports from developing countries (3.2.10, Table VI). (b) the impact of reduction commitments on world agricultural trade; (a) eligibility for such payments shall be determined by a loss of income which takes into account only agricultural income exceeding 30% of the average gross income or equivalent of net income (excluding payments under the same or similar schemes) during the previous three-year period or an average of three years on the basis of the previous five-year period; excluding the highest and lowest entrance. Any producer who fulfils this condition is eligible to obtain the payments. The GATT 1947 initially applied to agriculture, but was incomplete, and the signatory States (or “Contracting Parties”) excluded this sector from the scope of the principles set out in the General Agreement. During the period 1947-1994, members were allowed to benefit from export subsidies on primary agricultural products and, under certain conditions, to impose import restrictions, so that major agricultural raw materials faced trade barriers to an unusual extent in other product sectors. The road to a fair and market-oriented agricultural trade system has therefore been difficult and long; and the negotiations were finally concluded during the Uruguay Round. Agriculture has a special status in the WTO trade agreements and agreements (signed in 1994 and entered into force on 1 January 1995), with the sector having a specific agreement, the Agreement on Agriculture, whose provisions are given priority. In addition, certain provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) also concern agricultural production and trade.
The same applies to the Agreement on the Commercial Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) with regard to the protection of geographical names. In addition, the provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture are complemented by the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and technical assistance mechanisms. National agricultural support schemes are governed by the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), which entered into force in 1995 and was negotiated during the Uruguay Round (1986-1994). The European Union is thus largely respecting the commitments made in Marrakesh (€72.38 billion per year) for the AMS. In addition, the “Blue Box” reached 4.6 billion euros during the same registration period. . . .