1.35 The effects of emissions of ozone-depleting substances do not respect geographical or judicial boundaries. Foreign emissions influence the ozone layer over Canada in the same way as domestic emissions. Solutions require international cooperation and action at the global level. 1.16 Because international environmental agreements reflect the federal government`s important environmental policy, Canadians should know what they have and have not achieved. In line with the federal agenda and commitments, we are committed to examining responsibility for the results of certain international environmental agreements. A treaty is a formal and explicit written agreement by which states are legally united. [8] A treaty is an official document that expresses that agreement in terms of words; It is also the objective result of a ceremonial occasion that recognizes the parties and their defined relationships. The publication of a contract does not require academic accreditation or interprofessional contextual knowledge. According to the preamble to the Treaty Act, treaties are a source of international law. In the event of a conviction of an act or the absence of an act under international law, the act will not take on international legality, even if it is authorized by domestic law.

[19] This means that in the event of a conflict with domestic law, international law always takes precedence. [20] 1.18 Despite the designation of a lead division for any international environmental agreement, there are no common mechanisms to formally define and delegate the responsibilities of lead departments. The nature of the lead division`s role is normally based on the mandate of the department and the related responsibilities of the Minister. Federal Cabinet documents authorizing the negotiation and ratification of agreements (for example. B memoranda to cabinet and records of decisions) can also identify the lead department and, to some extent, describe its role. However, by law, ministerial records are not accessible to the public or members of Parliament and are therefore not sufficiently transparent for accountability purposes. 1.4 Setting clear and quantifiable expectations for results, and then measuring results against those expectations, can be a major challenge in managing complex environmental issues. Nevertheless, our study of five international environmental agreements shows that 1.63 The agreement. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) aims to eliminate deliberate pollution of the marine environment from the operation of ships and to minimize accidental discharges of pollutants.

In six annexes, MARPOL deals with pollution by oil, chemicals, packaged goods, waste, wastewater and air emissions. . . .